1 SURELY We have given you the Kauthar.
108:1 The sūrah derives its title from the mention of al-kauthar (lit. the abundance of good) in this verse. The word is derived from root kathrah (lit. multitude, abundance, plenty) from which the title of another sūrah, at-takāthur is derived (102:1). In sūrah at-takāthur, the connotation of kathrah is used in the sense of abundance of wealth diverting people from their real objectives in life, whereas here the same root word is used to coin a unique word implying abundance of good bestowed upon the Prophet and in turn upon all his true followers (Ibn ‘Abbās, Sa‘īd bin Zubayr quoted by Tabari, Ibn Kathīr). In the example of the Prophet, abundance of good included spiritual and abstract things, e.g. divine revelation, knowledge, wisdom, leadership, success, victory and dignity in this life and in the Hereafter.
108:2 Therefore perform Salāt for your Rabb, and do sacrifice.
108:2 In response to the abundant good bestowed upon the true believers, they are required to do two primary duties: perform salāt and sacrifice. The term nahara (lit. sacrifice an animal) is used in the sense of sacrificing not only animals but also all good things that might benefit others. Both of these duties essentially summarize entire facet of Islamic belief. Salāt takes care of belief and corresponding spiritual duties; sacrifice, on the other hand, takes care of essential duties in an egalitarian, pluralistic society envisaged by the Qur’ān.
108:3 Surely your hater— he is the deprived.
108:3 The term abtar implies cutting off something entirely. The root word batr (lit. to amputate, to cut off entirely, e.g. tail of an animal) has a nuance of sarcasm in the way it is used in sentences. The word often implies permanent, irreversible damage caused to the owner. In this instance it means cutting off the good and prosperity from such person who adopts ways disregarding salāt and sacrifice.