13:2 Allah is He Who raised the heavens without pillars— as you can see them. Then He is established on the Throne of Power. And He subjugates the sun and the moon. Each one pursues along an appointed course. He regulates the affair, He explains the Messages that you may firmly believe in the meeting of your Rabb.
13: 2 The Qur’ān is not a book of science and it has not relied upon scientific narration to validate its divine origin. Keeping this in mind, it simply sufficed to bring to the attention of the seventh century Arabs the visible wonders of the earth and the universe in terms understood by them. The purpose was to point out existence of almighty God and reject the concept of multiple gods the Arabs were accustomed to worshipping. That the vast sky is raised as a canopy (2:22) without the need of any pillar (31:10; Job 26:11) and that the sun and moon pursue an appointed term to rise and set, attest to the existence of a Supreme Commander Who created and subjugated them to follow His laws. The word samawat (pl.) means the visible sky, the universe with all of its celestial objects. I have used the word heaven to emphasize the implied meaning that it is not only the sky but also the universe and its celestial objects. The elliptical orbital movement of the sun and the moon would be discovered several centuries later, however, with common intelligence the Arabs knew that the sun and moon set and rise in certain pattern as if they pursue an appointed course. Ibn ‘Abbās expressed similar thought. Commentators interpreted the word azala as ‘term’ or ‘appointed time’ implying ‘date of maturity’, ‘fixed term’ or ‘deadline’ etc. to suggest that all orbital objects are destined to perish at the end of their term (31:29; 35:13; 39:5). Either rendition of the phrase is correct; therefore I have interchangeably used two terms in various verses. Such being the matter, the phrase He is established on the Throne of Power emphasizes Allāh’s Majesty extending in the entire universe (2:255; 7:54; 10:3; 20:5; 25:59; 32:4; 57:4). Reference to throne helps understanding the absolute power of Allāh over His entire creation, but it has nothing to do with the concept of a king and his throne within limited boundaries.