4:59 O you who believe! obey Allāh and obey the Rasūl, and those in command among you; then if you differ in anything then refer it back to Allāh and the Rasūl,— if you are believing in Allāh and the Future day. This is better and an excellent conclusion.
4:59 The verse lays down three fundamental guidelines to follow when policy related disagreement occurs, whether it is in the matter of faith or civil issue, whether it involves an individual or an authority and whether it is a local governing body or a formal state. Since all political power of an individual, a governing body or a state is essentially a trust (amānāh) held on behalf of God, its implementation must be in accordance to what God has prescribed and in spirit of Islam. The phrase those who are in command (ūlī-l amar) refer to the ones who have been entrusted with the authority based on one’s expertise in a given field. Most of the commentators think the phrase refers exclusively to the Muslims, primarily since the verse addresses the believers, who would ideally seek solution to any problem in sequential order starting with Allāh, His messenger and those who are in command. If disagreement still persists after seeking solutions from those who are in command, it should once again be referred back to Allāh and His messenger, i.e. firstly to the Qur’ān and then to Hadīth as the final authority.